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Git is a game-changing distributed version control system (DVCS) that tackles numerous major issues in the software development environment. It solves the challenge of organizing numerous developers’ involvement by letting each contributor keep a local copy of the whole project history. This decentralization means developers may work freely and effectively even when disconnected from a central server, reducing network dependence difficulties. Git’s powerful branching and merging capabilities allow teams to experiment with new features, correct issues, and seamlessly integrate changes while reducing the chance of conflicts and data loss. Furthermore, Git’s ability to precisely monitor changes, offer audit trails, and encourage code review via pull requests improves code quality and cooperation. By overcoming these challenges, Git has become an indispensable tool for modern software development, promoting a more efficient and collaborative coding environment. In this blog, we will explore Git Commands and its Features.
Introduction to Git
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Git & Version Control
Version control systems are classified into two types: centralized and distributed:
- Centralized version control systems feature a single repository that acts as the codebase’s official source.
- Git and other distributed version control systems have several repositories, each of which is a complete copy of the source.
A Git repository is a storage space for a project, containing all the files, directories, and the complete history of changes made to them. It can be local (on your computer) or remote (on a server). Git repositories are independent, which means each developer can have their local repository and synchronize changes with others.
Git Basics – Commands and Features
Git is a well-known version control system developers use to maintain and collaborate on their work. Learning the fundamentals of Git requires novices to utilize Git effectively in their development projects. To get started, follow these steps:
- Install Git: To get started, download and install Git on your local machine. You may get it from the official Git website and install it by following the instructions.
- Set up a new Git repository: Once Git is installed, use the git init command in the terminal or command prompt to establish a new Git repository. In your current directory, a new repository will be created.
Initialized empty Git repository in C:/Users/MohammedHassanShahid/Desktop/git_demo/.git/
3. Configure Git: Use the git config command to set your Git login and email address. This data will be used to identify your commitments.
4. Add files to the repository: Use the git add command to add files to your repository. You can add individual files or whole folders.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git add .
5. Commit: After you’ve added files to the repository, use the git commit command to save them. A commit is a snapshot of the project at a specific point in time. It represents a logical unit of work and includes changes made to one or more files. Commits form the building blocks of the project’s history, making it easy to track and revert changes.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git commit -m "first commit"
[master (root-commit) ce18339] first commit
Committer: Mohammed Hassan Shahid <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Your name and email address were configured automatically based
on your username and hostname. Please check that they are accurate.
You can suppress this message by setting them explicitly. Run the
following command and follow the instructions in your editor to edit
your configuration file:
git config --global --edit
After doing this, you may fix the identity used for this commit with:
git commit --amend --reset-author
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
create mode 100644 git_demo.txt
6. Examine the situation: To verify the status of your repository, use the git status This will display all files that have been changed or added since your last commit.
On branch master
nothing to commit, working tree clean
7. Make branches: Branches in Git allow developers to work on different features or bug fixes simultaneously without interfering with each other. Each branch represents a separate line of development, enabling independent experimentation. The main branch, often called “master” or “main,” typically contains the stable version of the project. To add a new branch to your repository, use the git branch command. Using branches, you may work on distinct features or modifications without impacting the main codebase.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git branch new_branch
8. Change branches: To switch between branches, use the git checkout command. This allows you to work on separate branches and merge them afterward.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git checkout new_branch
Switched to branch 'new_branch'
9. Merge branches: Merging combines changes from one branch into another. It allows developers to integrate their work, resolve conflicts, and maintain a unified codebase. Git uses advanced algorithms to automate merging as much as possible, making the process efficient and reliable. To combine branches, use the git merge command. This will merge the modifications from one branch with those from another.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git merge new_branch
10. Add Remote: Git facilitates collaboration by allowing developers to share their work through remote repositories. The commonly used platforms for hosting remote repositories are GitHub, Bitbucket, and AWS CodeCommit. By pushing their local commits to a remote repository, multiple developers can work together, review code, and contribute to the project effortlessly. Use the remote keyword to execute this functionality. You will require the repository link for this command.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git remote add origin
11. Changes may be pushed to a remote repository using the git push command. This allows others to view and contribute to your code.
C:\Users\MohammedHassanShahid\Desktop\git_demo>git push origin master
Enumerating objects: 3, done.
Counting objects: 100% (3/3), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 249 bytes | 249.00 KiB/s, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
* [new branch] master -> master
Git is a sophisticated solution that allows software engineers to easily handle version control and collaboration in projects of any size. Because of its distributed structure, branching model, and merging capabilities, it is a must-have ability for current engineers. Beginners may begin their adventure into the world of Git and experience the benefits of efficient version management and smooth collaboration by comprehending the core ideas and following the basic process.
Drop a query if you have any questions regarding Git and we will get back to you quickly.
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1. What is the difference between Git and GitHub?
ANS: – Git and GitHub are often used together, but they serve different purposes. Git is a version control system that manages the history of changes in a project, allowing collaboration and tracking modifications. On the other hand, GitHub is a web-based platform that hosts Git repositories and provides additional features like issue tracking, pull requests, and team collaboration. Git is the underlying technology, while GitHub is a service built on Git.
2. How can I revert a commit in Git?
ANS: – To undo a commit in Git, use the git revert command. This command generates a new commit that reverses the modifications made in an earlier commit. It effectively creates a new commit that negates the modifications introduced in the specified commit, allowing you to roll back changes without deleting commit history.