AI/ML, Cloud Computing, IoT

3 Mins Read

Communication Protocols Used in the IoT Space


The micro-controllers and Processors will connect with integrated sensors via multiple protocols in the IoT sector.

Then, these IoT devices will employ various communication protocols to push the data to the cloud. This blog will explore a few communication protocols used in the IoT space.

  • HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
  • LoRaWan (Long Range Wide Area Network)
  • ZigBee
  • Bluetooth
  • Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)
  • Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

The most effective example of an Internet of Things network protocol is HTTP. The backbone of data communication over the web is this protocol. Whenever there is a huge amount of information to be published, it is the most popular protocol for IoT devices. Nevertheless, the HTTP protocol is not favored due to its expense, battery life, energy efficiency, and further limitations.

One application for the HTTP protocol is additive manufacturing and 3D printing. It allows computers to interconnect 3D printers to print three-dimensional objects and prototypes for predetermined processes.

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LoRaWan (Long Range Wide Area Network)

LoRaWan is a low-power, long-range protocol that can detect signals below background noise. LoRaWan connects battery powered items wirelessly to the Internet in local or global networks. Millions of low-power, low-memory devices are used in smart cities, where this communication protocol is mostly employed.

The LoRaWan IoT protocol’s practical use case is smart street lighting. This protocol can link the street lights to a LoRa gateway. The gateway then establishes a connection with a cloud application that automatically regulates light bulb intensity based on environmental lighting, which aids in lowering power consumption during the day.


One of the most popular short-range communication technologies is Bluetooth. It is a typical IoT protocol for transmitting wireless data. This short-range, low-power, low-cost wireless transmission protocol is safe and ideal for use with electronic equipment. The BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) protocol is a low-energy variant of the Bluetooth standard crucial for tying together Internet of Things (IoT) devices.


An IoT technology termed ZigBee enables the communication between smart things. It frequently appears in home automation. ZigBee is utilized with applications that handle low-rate data transfer over short distances and is more popular in industrial environments.

Urban regions with minimal power consumption employ the ZigBee communication technology for street lights and electric meters. Additionally, it is utilized in smart homes and security systems.

Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is One of the most popular protocols in IoT devices. MQTT provides remote device monitoring and collects data from various electronic devices. It facilitates event-driven message exchange across wireless networks because it is a publish/subscribe protocol that runs over Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

MQTT is mostly utilized in low-cost, power- and memory-intensive devices. Examples include text-based chat apps, smart watches, auto sensors, and fire detectors.

Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

CoAP is an internet-utility protocol for restricted gadgets. Using this protocol, the client can submit a request to the server, and the server can resend the response to the client in HTTP. It takes advantage of UDP (User Data-gram Protocol) for lightweight development and decreases space utilization. The protocol uses the EXL binary data format (Efficient XML Interchanges).

The CoAP protocol is mostly utilized in micro-controllers, mobile devices, and automation. The protocol requests services and resources from the application’s endpoints, such as home appliances, and then returns a response.

Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

AMQP is a routing and queuing software layer protocol for message-oriented middleware environments. It provides seamless and secure data sharing between connected devices and the cloud and is utilized for dependable point-to-point connections. The three components of AMQP are Exchange, Message Queue, and Binding. These three elements work together to guarantee a safe and effective message exchange and storage. Additionally, it aids in demonstrating how one message relates to another.

The banking sector is the principal application for the AMQP protocol. The protocol keeps track of every message a server sends until it is successfully delivered to all intended users and destinations.


Thus, we have looked at some IoT communication protocols utilized in device-to-gateway and gateway-to-cloud communication.

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1. Which communication protocol is light and widely utilized in the IoT domain?

ANS: – MQTT protocol is light and widely utilized in the IoT domain.

2. Which communication protocol is used to transfer huge amounts of data?

ANS: – HTTP is the communication protocol that transfers huge amounts of data.

WRITTEN BY Vasanth Kumar R

Vasanth Kumar R works as a Sr. Research Associate at CloudThat. He is highly focused and passionate about learning new cutting-edge technologies including Cloud Computing, AI/ML & IoT/IIOT. He has experience with AWS and Azure Cloud Services, Embedded Software, and IoT/IIOT Development, and also worked with various sensors and actuators as well as electrical panels for Greenhouse Automation.



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