This blog will discuss PostgreSQL and the uniqueness of PostgreSQL as compared to other open-source SQL software. Let us explore PostgreSQL Common Table Expressions (CTE), PostgreSQL Upsert (Update+Insert), and much more.
Introduction to PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL is a relational database management system that is sophisticated, enterprise-class, and open-source. PostgreSQL supports both relational and non-relational data querying. It is a robust database that the open-source community has developed for more than two decades.
Many online apps, mobile, and analytics applications use PostgreSQL as their primary database.
Top features of PostgreSQL
Many advanced features are available in PostgreSQL that are not available in other enterprise-class database management systems, such as:
Types that you declare
Inheritance in tables is a concept that has been
Sophisticated locking mechanism
Reference integrity of foreign keys
Subquery, views, rules
Transactions that are linked together (save points)
Extensibility is a key feature of PostgreSQL. We can create our data types, index types, functional languages, and other features in PostgreSQL.
If there is something about the system we do not like, we may always create a custom plugin to improve it to match your needs, such as adding a new optimizer.
Uniqueness of PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL is an object-relational database. It offers an advantage over MySQL, MariaDB, and Firebird, all open-source SQL databases. It supports many data types as described below:
JSON support: The JSON support in PostgreSQL allows you to use a SQL database without a schema. It is beneficial when the data structure requires some flexibility due to ongoing development or when the data fields that the data object will include are unknown. The JSON data type enforces proper JSON, allowing you to query and manipulate the data with the specific JSON operators and functions included in PostgreSQL.
Geometric Data: Geo-data is quickly becoming a requirement for many applications. Geometric data types such as points, lines, circles, and polygons have long been supported by PostgreSQL. One of these is the PATH data type. A path is a series of points that might be open (the starting and end points are not connected) or closed (the beginning and end points are connected) (the beginning and end points are connected).
Network Address: Different network address types can be stored in PostgreSQL. The CIDR data type (Classless Internet Domain Routing) follows the IPv4 and IPv6 network address conventions. The INET data type, which is used for IPv4 and IPv6 hosts where the subnet is optional, is also accessible for network address storage. The MACADDR data type can be used to store MAC addresses.
The CTE (Common Table Expression) is a temporary result set in PostgreSQL that the user can reference within another SQL operation such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE. CTEs are transitory because they exist only while the query is being executed. In PostgreSQL, CTEs are commonly used to simplify complex joins and subqueries.
The CTE’s name comes first, followed by an optional column list.
Second, specify a query that returns a result set inside the WITH clause’s body. If you do not mention the column list following the CTE name, the CTE query definition’s select list will be used as the CTE’s column list.
Third, treat the CTE like a table or view in the SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement.
With cte_insert as(
Insert into Students(id,name)values(1,’Ravi’)returning id
Select *from Students where id=(select id from cte_insert)
Executing multiple queries using CTE
With cte_std as(
Insert into Students(id,name,courseid)values(2,’Hari’,101)returning id,courseid
Insert into Course(sid,cid)values((select id from cte_std),(select coursed from cte_std))
Select *from Students join Course on Students.id=Course.sid;
In this above query, we insert data into different tables in a single query without using any subqueries, breaking complex things into simpler ones.
The phrase upsert is also used as a merge in relational databases. If a row already exists in the table, PostgreSQL will update it; otherwise, it will insert the new row. Hence the action is known as upsert (update or insert).
Insert into table_name(col1,col2)
One of the following actions could be taken:
DO NOTHING — If the row already exists in the table, do nothing.
WHERE condition – change some fields in the table. DO UPDATE SET column 1 = value 1
CreateaTable asshown below:
create table doctor(
id integerPRIMARY KEY,
Now, insert data into it:
insert into doctor(id,name,active)values(1,'doctor1','true');
->select *from doctor;
Let us check if doctor1 is present then we make him inactive, if he is not there in the table then we will insert a new record and set him too inactive.
insert into doctor(id,name,active)
doupdate set active='false'
->select *from doctor;
In the above query, as id=1 already exists, only the update query worked, or else the insert query has worked. The column name we give in on conflict should be either unique or a primary key constraint.
Today we have gone through the Postgre SQL features and its unique characteristics which made Postgre SQL more popular among other open-source SQL software. We have used temporary tables i.e CTEs, which make our query more optimized.
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What is PostgreSQL, and what does it cost?
PostgreSQL is an object-relational database system with the functionality of conventional proprietary database systems. The entire source code for PostgreSQL is available for everyone, and it is free.
Imraan is a Software Developer working with CloudThat Technologies. He has worked on Python Projects using the Flask framework. He is interested in participating in competitive programming challenges and Hackathons. He loves programming and likes to explore different functionalities for creating backend applications.